Study: Integrating satellite and socioeconomic data to improve climate change policy

University of Illinois Re-Blogged From EurekAlert

IMAGE
IMAGE: Atul Jain led a study that used a combination of satellite and census data to identify deforestation and expanding saltwater farming as the key physical and socioeconomic drivers of climate… view more 

Credit: Photo by L. Brian Stauffer

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Michigan Dam Failures and Climate Change

By Kip Hansen  —  Re-Blogged From WUWT

In keeping with the NY Times’ Editorial Narrative on climate change (“every story is a climate story”), Henry Fountain writes this piece:  ‘Expect More’: Climate Change Raises Risk of Dam Failures.     It carries the sub-title “Engineers say most dams in the United States, designed decades ago, are unsuited to a warmer world and stronger storms.”

The story is the sad tale of the dual dam failures in Michigan – the Edenville Dam failed and the resulting downstream flow overtopped the Sanford Lake Dam situated 10 miles further downstream on the Tittabawassee River.

Don’t know where that is?

Edenville_featured_image

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Trump: Oil Has Become “Less Valuable Than Water”

By Associated Press – Re-Blogged From Headline Wealth

The outbreak of the coronavirus has dealt a shock to the global economy with unprecedented speed. Following are developments on Wednesday related to the global economy, the work place and the spread of the virus.

THINGS WE VALUED: The outbreak has reshuffled the pecking order of what holds value and there are few places where that is more evident than oil.

Over the last quarter the price of crude has fallen harder than at any point in history, plunging almost 70%, to around $20 per barrel. Those are levels not seen since 2002.

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Merchants of Thirst

By Kip Hansen – Re-Blogged From WUWT

Water tankers ply the city streets bringing essential supplies of fresh potable water to thirsty neighborhoods.

“For city authorities that are already struggling to maintain the current supply as climate change strikes, let alone source additional water, tankers can seem like a safety net they feel powerless to resist.’’

So Peter Schwartzstein writes in a feature piece in the New York Times titled “The Merchants of Thirst” in the 11 January 2020 online edition.

featured-image

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Water Scarcity in Cape Town

By Michael Stahl – weather.com

In January 2018, officials in Cape Town — a port city on South Africa’s southwest coast that’s home to four million people — announced that the municipality was running out of water. By then, Cape Town had experienced three consecutive years of drought, culminating with its most arid year on record in 2017. Legislators believed that on April 12, 2018, they would be forced to shut down the entire water-supply system until local reservoirs somehow became reinvigorated.

Theewaterskloof Dam during Cape Town water crisis

(Getty Images/Evan Hallein)

Desperate Efforts to Drag the Climate Change Drought Narrative Back on Track

By Eric Worrall – Re-Blogged From WUWT 

Aussie Climate Scientists are rushing to fill the breach caused by Professor Andy Pitman’s stunning admission there is no long term drying trend in drought prone Australia.

 

Link between climate change and drought
h/t JoNova – a slide from Professor Pitman’s presentation in June 2019

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Weekly Climate and Energy News Roundup #383

The Week That Was: October 26, 2019, Brought to You by www.SEPP.org

By Ken Haapala, President, Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)

Quote of the Week – “Beware of false knowledge; it is more dangerous than ignorance.”— George Bernard Shaw [H/t William Readdy]

Number of the Week: $11.69 billion up 31%

Alarmists in Local Media – Using Surface Data: The huge propaganda push by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on the need for “climate protection” has resulted in many strident claims in the local media, many becoming colorful slogans such as “climate crisis”, “climate chaos”, etc. Joseph D’Aleo, a Certified Consulting Meteorologist, and a fellow of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) has long addressed false ideas about climate change both in the AMS and in the public. D’Aleo was a founder of the Weather Channel and of WeatherBell Analytics, LLC. He is a pioneer in seasonal forecasts based on evidence and statistical modeling. As with many well-known skeptics who rebut the unsubstantiated claims that carbon dioxide is causing dangerous global warming, D’Aleo has been called a shill for oil companies and suffered many other politically motivated attacks.

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The Water Future of Earth’s ‘Third Pole’

By: Carol Rasmussen – Re- Blogged From WUWT

Himalaya. Karakoram. Hindu Kush. The names of Asia’s high mountain ranges conjure up adventure to those living far away, but for more than a billion people, these are the names of their most reliable water source.

Snow and glaciers in these mountains contain the largest volume of freshwater outside of Earth’s polar ice sheets, leading hydrologists to nickname this region the Third Pole. One-seventh of the world’s population depends on rivers flowing from these mountains for water to drink and to irrigate crops.

Rapid changes in the region’s climate, however, are affecting glacier melt and snowmelt. People in the region are already modifying their land-use practices in response to the changing water supply, and the region’s ecology is transforming. Future changes are likely to influence food and water security in India, Pakistan, China and other nations.

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Emerging Threat of Ferocious Ag-flation

Most Americans take food abundance for granted. Grocery store shelves are always stocked, and America’s agricultural sector always grows more than enough corn, wheat, and soybean crops to keep the food production system humming along smoothly.

That all could change as abruptly as the weather. In fact, historically wet conditions throughout the Midwest have put this year’s spring planting in jeopardy.

As reported by Minnesota Public Radio, “Corn is being planted at the slowest pace ever, while soybean seeding is the slowest since 1996. And with the start of June looming, many farmers are facing a tough choice — do they even try to get crops in the ground at all?”

For farmers and ranchers across the heartland, it’s a financial crisis akin to a Great Depression. U.S. farm income is down 45% since 2013.

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Venezuela Returns to ‘Middle Ages’ During Power Outages

By Maria Lorente – Re-Blogged From Yahoo!

Walking for hours, making oil lamps, bearing water. For Venezuelans today, suffering under a new nationwide blackout that has lasted days, it’s like being thrown back to life centuries ago.

El Avila, a mountain that towers over Caracas, has become a place where families gather with buckets and jugs to fill up with water, wash dishes and scrub clothes. The taps in their homes are dry from lack of electricity to the city’s water pumps.

A man carries drums with water he collected from a stream at the Wuaraira Repano mountain, also called El Avila, in Caracas

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California Fire Crews Drink Water Pulled From Thin Air

Re-Blogged From WUWT

An Israeli company is helping America’s disaster victims and first responders

Watergen sends Israeli water-making machine to assist massive wildfires.

Abigail Klein Leichman

An emergency response vehicle (ERV) carrying an innovative Israeli machine that pulls pure drinking water directly out of ambient air is on its way to California, to provide hydration to police and firefighters dealing with the aftermath of two massive wildfires that have taken at least 87 lives and destroyed over 10,000 homes and businesses.

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Earth Is Sucking Down Way More Water Than We Thought, And No One’s Sure Where It’s Going

Re-Blogged From Science Alert

Slow-motion collisions of tectonic plates under the ocean drag about three times more water down into the deep Earth than previously believed, according to a seismic study that spans the Mariana Trench.

The observations from the deepest ocean trench in the world have important implications for the global water cycle, researchers say.

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China in Water Crisis

By Eric Worrall – Re-Blogged From WUWT

China’s environmental and food logistics problems may be far worse than they are letting on.

China’s hunger for soybeans is a window into an encroaching environmental crisis

BY JEFF NESBIT

How China’s desperate efforts to source soybeans from all over the world is explained by the country’s fear of running out of water.

China approached Peru and Brazil with an extraordinarily ambitious proposition several years ago. It would build a 3,000-mile railroad from the western coast of Peru to the eastern coast of Brazil to handle commerce and trade from the interior of South America to China.

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We All Must Sacrifice for the Environment

Foreword by Paul Dreissen – Re-Blogged From WUWT

Being “hoisted by his own petard” means the bomb maker gets blown up and lifted sky high by his own explosive device. Former Colorado Department of Natural Resources director Greg Walcher notes that the term applies with delicious irony to the in-your-face, holier-than-thou environmentalists who inhabit and run San Francisco.

Determined to save locally endangered salmon populations, they and the State of California have long demanded and imposed water use reductions by Central Valley farmers. But now the California Water Resources Board wants further water use reductions – and this time those reductions will also hit city residences, schools and businesses, and hit them hard: a hefty portion of 98 billion to 220 billion gallons less water per year! Imagine how many baths, showers, laundry and dishwasher loads, and other “essentials” that would mean.

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California Passes 100% Renewable Power By 2045 Bill

By David Middleton – Re-Blogged From WUWT

California may be done waiting for everyone else to get their act together on climate change.

Earlier this week, by a vote of 44 to 33, the state Assembly passed a bill that would require California to get 100 percent of its electricity from renewables by 2045. An equivalent measure already passed the state Senate. A whopping 72 percent of Californians support the measure. All that’s left is for Gov. Jerry Brown (D) to sign the bill. And he’s expected to do so.

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How Much Water Do You Really Need?

Re-Blogged From Newsmax Health

During the summer — and even year-round — our bodies crave water. There’s no way to live without it. But just how much do we really need every day to stay healthy?

The answer can get complicated.

“It’s hard to find an exact amount because it’s variable based on your age, where you live, whether it’s hot and humid, or cold and dry. Are you male or female, more active or less active,” said Ilyse Schapiro, a registered dietitian with nutrition counseling practices in New York and Connecticut.

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Israel Makes Incredibly Generous Offer Of Free Water Technology To The Iranian People

By Onan Coca – Re-Blogged From Freedom Outpost

The Iranian regime shouts, “Death to Israel!” In response, Israel shouts, “Life! To the Iranian people!”

While the world may hate Israel, the people of Israel continue to prove that their nation is a force for good in this chaotic world.

The most recent example that proves this point is Israel’s gracious offer to the Iranian people.

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Drinking Water Helps Aging Brains Get More From Exercise

By HealthDay – Re-Blogged From Newsmax Health

Older adults, drink up. You need plenty of water during exercise so your brain gets the full benefits of working out, researchers say.

“Middle-age and older adults often display a blunted thirst perception, which places them at risk for dehydration, and subsequently may reduce the cognitive [mental] health-related benefits of exercise,” said Brandon Yates, of Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital in Boston, and colleagues.

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TC40 Underwater Exploration Unmanned Surface Vehicle

Re-Blogged From Oceana

 

Introduction

TC40 Underwater Exploration Unmanned Surface Vehicle is a platform of autonomous hidden sewer pipe detecting vessel as sharp weapons of environmental supervision, reacting promptly to water pollution accident emergency by tracking pollution source and detecting hidden sewer pipes by locating the pipes precisely by GPS , a real guardian of human lives.

TC40 Underwater Exploration Unmanned Surface Vehicle

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Reservoir in Sea to End Bengaluru, India’s Drinking Water Problems?

[I was thinking that it should be possible to create a reservoir off shore, let rain fill it, and use the fresh water on shore. To the (tiny) extent that it would lower sea levels, Greens should support it. Sure enough, it’s being done (to some extent) already. -Bob]

Re-Blogged From The Times of India

BENGALURU: Could a reservoir in the Arabian Sea be the one-stop solution to harness flood waters of the Nethravathi river and end the drinking water scarcity in Bengaluru and Mangaluru? Following a report from researchers at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru development minister K J George has instructed the city water board to look into the possibility of implementing the proposal.

T G Sitharam, senior professor at the department of civil engineering at IISc said the proposal to bring water from the west-flowing river was a sustainable water resource development strategy for Mangaluru and Bengaluru. He made a presentation of the feasibility study before George. The meeting was also attended by officials of the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB).

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Qatar Runs Out of Sand!

By David Middleton – Re-Blogged From http://www.WattsUpWithThat.com

qatar_sand

The future of the diplomatic crisis surrounding Qatar may come to hinge on an unlikely commodity: sand.

An analysis of Qatar’s export and import data conducted by Al Arabiya suggests that Qatar is facing serious challenges to meet its construction needs for the 2022 FIFA World Cup.

The precious commodity is vital to construction and Qatar’s push to build the infrastructure it needs to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup will require large sand imports.

Oil was the strategic commodity in the 20th century and in many regions of the world water resources are increasingly the center of geopolitical competition. However, the Qatar crisis has put sand back in the forefront.

The Anti-Terrorism Quartet severed diplomatic and trade ties with Qatar on June 5 over Doha’s ties to terrorist groups.

Among the Quartet are Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates – all of which were significant exporters of sand to the country as recently as last year.

[…]

Most extracted natural resource after water

Sand is the world’s second most extracted natural resource after water. However, most of the cost in sand production is in transportation. The global economy has seen local shortages as a result of increased urbanization, especially in Asia where the crisis has been acutely felt. Some regions of India have banned sand-mining in recent months.

Sand is found in a wide range of products, from the glass screen in a smartphone to the fracking solution used in an oil well.

But it’s most common use, by far, is in construction where it is mixed with concrete.

Like much of the Arabian Peninsula, Qatar is home to fields of scenic dunes. However, that desert sand is often too powdery to be used in construction, which relies on coarse riverbed sand.

[…]

Sand stockpiles

Qatar is well-aware of the sand crisis as state-owned media reported on it this year. Qatar has already cancelled some proposed ideas in recent years like a bridge between Qatar and Bahrain which seems politically unlikely given the current crisis. Other commissioned stadium projects plan to use less construction materials.

According to BMI Research, Qatar’s construction industry grew by as much as 14% last year and was expected to grow further this year. That is because Qatar’s budget set aside 47% of total expenditure for major projects in 2017 – a total of some $13 billion.

As recently as 2010, Qatar was exporting to sand to Iraq, according to the New York Times. However, the World Cup infrastructure program has rapidly changed the country’s position regarding the valuable resource.

[…]

Al Arabiya

Who would have ever guessed that a rich, oil-exporting desert nation might run out of sand before it ran out of oil and water?  Have you ever wanted to tell OPEC to “go pound sand”?  Well, you better do it before some of OPEC’s members run out of sand.

Could Qatar be the “sand crisis” version of the “canary in the coal mine”?

Annals of Geology
May 29, 2017 Issue

The World Is Running Out of Sand

It’s one of our most widely used natural resources, but it’s scarcer than you think.

By David Owen

[…]

Sand covers so much of the earth’s surface that shipping it across borders—even uncontested ones—seems extreme. But sand isn’t just sand, it turns out. In the industrial world, it’s “aggregate,” a category that includes gravel, crushed stone, and various recycled materials. Natural aggregate is the world’s second most heavily exploited natural resource, after water, and for many uses the right kind is scarce or inaccessible. In 2014, the United Nations Environment Programme published a report titled “Sand, Rarer Than One Thinks,” which concluded that the mining of sand and gravel “greatly exceeds natural renewal rates” and that “the amount being mined is increasing exponentially, mainly as a result of rapid economic growth in Asia.”

Pascal Peduzzi, a Swiss scientist and the director of one of the U.N.’s environmental groups, told the BBC last May that China’s swift development had consumed more sand in the previous four years than the United States used in the past century. In India, commercially useful sand is now so scarce that markets for it are dominated by “sand mafias”—criminal enterprises that sell material taken illegally from rivers and other sources, sometimes killing to safeguard their deposits. In the United States, the fastest-growing uses include the fortification of shorelines eroded by rising sea levels and more and more powerful ocean storms—efforts that, like many attempts to address environmental challenges, create environmental challenges of their own.

Geologists define sand not by composition but by size, as grains between 0.0625 and two millimetres across. Just below sand on the size scale is silt; just above it is gravel. Most sand consists chiefly of quartz, the commonest form of silica, but there are other kinds. Sand on ocean beaches usually includes a high proportion of shell pieces and, increasingly, bits of decomposing plastic trash; Hawaii’s famous black sand is weathered fragments of volcanic glass; the sand in the dunes at White Sands National Monument, in New Mexico, is mainly gypsum. Sand is almost always formed through the gradual disintegration of bigger rocks, by the action of ice, water, wind, and time, but, as the geologist Michael Welland writes, in his book “Sand: The Never-Ending Story,” many of those bigger rocks were themselves formed from accumulations of the eroded bits of other rocks, and “perhaps half of all sand grains have been through six cycles in the mill, liberated, buried, exposed, and liberated again.”

Sand is also classified by shape, in configurations that range from oblong and sharply angular to nearly spherical and smooth. Desert sand is almost always highly rounded, because strong winds knock the grains together so forcefully that protrusions and sharp edges break off. River sand is more angular. William H. Langer, a research geologist who retired from the U.S. Geological Survey a few years ago and now works as a private consultant, told me, “In a stream, there’s a tiny film of water around each grain, so when the grains bang together there’s enough energy to break them apart but not enough to let them rub against each other.” The shape of sand deposited by glaciers and ice sheets depends partly on how far the sand was moved and what it was moved over. Most of the sand in the Hutcheson quarry is “sub-angular”: the grains have fractured faces, but the sharp edges have been partly abraded away. Sand that’s very slightly more smooth-edged is “sub-rounded.”

Aggregate is the main constituent of concrete (eighty per cent) and asphalt (ninety-four per cent), and it’s also the primary base material that concrete and asphalt are placed on during the building of roads, buildings, parking lots, runways, and many other structures. A report published in 2004 by the American Geological Institute said that a typical American house requires more than a hundred tons of sand, gravel, and crushed stone for the foundation, basement, garage, and driveway, and more than two hundred tons if you include its share of the street that runs in front of it. A mile-long section of a single lane of an American interstate highway requires thirty-eight thousand tons. The most dramatic global increase in aggregate consumption is occurring in parts of the world where people who build roads are trying to keep pace with people who buy cars. Chinese officials have said that by 2030 they hope to have completed a hundred and sixty-five thousand miles of roads—a national network nearly three and a half times as long as the American interstate system.

[…]

One engineer I spoke to told me that transporting sand and stone for ordinary construction becomes uneconomical after about sixty miles, and that builders usually make do with whatever is available within that radius, even if it means settling for materials that aren’t ideal. In some places, though, there are no usable alternatives. Florida lies on top of a vast limestone formation, but most of the stone is too soft to be used in construction. “The whole Gulf Coast is starved for aggregate,” William Langer, the research geologist, told me. “So they import limestone from Mexico, from a quarry in the Yucatán, and haul it by freighter across the Caribbean.” Even that stone is wrong for some uses. “You can build most of a road with limestone from Mexico,” he continued, “but it doesn’t have much skid resistance. So to get that they have to use granitic rock, which they ship down the East Coast from quarries in Nova Scotia or haul by train from places like inland Georgia.” When Denver International Airport was being built, in the nineteen-nineties, local quarries were unable to supply crushed stone as rapidly as it was needed, so vast quantities were brought from a quarry in Wyoming whose principal product was stone ballast for railroad tracks. The crushed stone was delivered by a freight train that ran in a continuous loop between the quarry and the work site.

Deposits of sand, gravel, and stone can be found all over the United States, but many of them are untouchable, because they’re covered by houses, shopping malls, or protected land. Regulatory approval for new quarries is more and more difficult to obtain: people don’t want to live near big, noisy holes, even if their lives are effectively fabricated from the products of those holes. The scarcity of alternatives makes existing quarries increasingly valuable. The Connecticut quarry I visited is one of a number owned by Stanley’s company, and like many in the United States it’s in operation today only because it predates current mining regulations.

[…]

Ten years ago, I spent a week in Dubai, which at the time was one of the fastest-growing cities in the world. Construction cranes and imported laborers were everywhere. The work went on all night, and the city’s extraordinary traffic congestion was continually being made worse by road-widening projects intended to relieve it. Exhaust from cars and trucks, in combination with wind-borne dust from the Arabian Desert and humid air from the Persian Gulf, formed a thick, phlegm-colored haze that made breathing unpleasant—an effect exacerbated by the ferocious heat. (Dubai gets so hot during the summer that many swimming pools are cooled, rather than heated.)

One day, I played golf with an Australian who worked for a major real-estate developer. The course, like Dubai itself, had been built on empty desert, and I commented that creating fairways and greens in such a forbidding environment must be difficult. “No,” the Australian said. “Deserts are easy, because you can shape the sand into anything you like.” The difficult parts, paradoxically, are the areas that are supposed to be sand: deserts make lousy sand traps. The wind-blown grains are so rounded that golf balls sink into them, so the sand in the bunkers on Dubai’s many golf courses is imported. Jumeirah Golf Estates—on the outskirts of the city, next to the desert—has two courses, Fire and Earth, both designed by Greg Norman. The sand in the bunkers on the Earth course is white (the most prized color for golf sand) and was bought from a producer in North Carolina. The sand on the Fire course is reddish brown—more like the desert across the road. Norman’s company bought it from Hutcheson, which mined it at its quarry in Ontario, sifted it to make it firmer than volleyball sand, kiln-dried it, dyed it, and loaded it onto a ship.

Unfortunately for Dubai’s builders and real-estate developers, desert sand is also unsuitable for construction and, indeed, for almost any human use. The grains don’t have enough fractured faces for concrete and asphalt, and they’re too small and round for water-filtration systems. The high-compression concrete used in Dubai’s Burj Khalifa, the world’s tallest structure, was made with sand imported from Australia. William Langer told me that other desert countries face similar shortages. “Mauritania is trying to catch up with the world,” he said. “They’ve got sand all over the place, but it isn’t good even for highway construction.” Stone is so scarce in Bangladesh that contractors commonly resort to making concrete with crushed brick.

[…]

The New Yorker

 

Who would have guessed that desert sand is almost totally useless as sand?  It even makes for “lousy sand traps” on golf courses.

Is the world really running out of sand?

The world has plenty of sand… It’s just in the wrong places…

World Resources: Sand and gravel resources of the world are plentiful. However, because of environmental restrictions, geographic distribution, and quality requirements for some uses, sand and gravel extraction is uneconomic in some cases. The most important commercial sources of sand and gravel have been glacial deposits, river channels, and river flood plains. Use of offshore deposits in the United States is mostly restricted to beach erosion control and replenishment. Other countries routinely mine offshore deposits of aggregates for onshore construction projects.

So, unless global warming ends the Quaternary glacial cycles, sand should remain an abundant, renewable resource.

More Than You Ever Wanted to Know About Sand

chartshephard

 

USGS Sand Nomenclature

CONTINUE READING –>

Weekly Climate and Energy News Roundup #261

Brought to You by www.SEPP.org

By Ken Haapala, President, The Science and Environmental Policy Project

Major Climate Model Issues — Curry: In her paper: Climate Models for the layman” presented last week, Judith Curry discusses major issues with Global Climate Models (GMCs) and why the predictions / projections from them are not reliable. Some of these issues have been discussed by others, such as David Evans on Jo Nova’s blog, but the key points deserve repeating. In general, these issues occur in models used by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its followers such as the US Global Change Research Program, EPA, etc. The weaknesses in the procedures used are generally buried in details by the IPCC and largely ignored or dismissed by its followers. These weaknesses should be the center of discussion, if the models are being considered for government policy.

In her discussion “What is a global climate model?” Curry states: “While some of the equations in climate models are based on the laws of physics such as Newton’s laws of motion and the first law of thermodynamics, there are key processes in the model that are approximated and not based on physical laws.” [Boldface added.] In its finding that greenhouse gases endanger human health and welfare, the EPA emphasizes that models are based on physical laws and ignores that the models are also based on approximations – educated guesses.

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Weekly Climate and Energy News Roundup #260

Brought to You by www.SEPP.org

By Ken Haapala, President, The Science and Environmental Policy Project

Global Climate Models: Judith Curry wrote a powerful critique of global climate models, “Climate Models for the Layman”, that was published by the Global Warming Policy Foundation. A few of the key points are discussed below. For those with a deeper interest in climate science or climate modeling, the entire paper is worthwhile.

In the executive summary, Curry presents several fundamental scientific points on Global Climate Models (GMCs) including:

“GCMs have not been subject to the rigorous verification and validation that is the norm for engineering and regulatory science.

There are valid concerns about a fundamental lack of predictability in the complex nonlinear climate system.”

The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is well aware of the failure to produce valid models. Five-time Assessment Report (AR) commentator Vincent Gray of New Zealand has repeatedly stated this failure to the IPCC. The IPCC has responded by evasive tactics such as changing terms of predictions to projections and terming highly questionable, evasive procedures as evaluation. Government entities that depend on the IPCC findings follow suit. These include the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), including its highly dubious calculations of the “Social Cost of Carbon”, and the EPA in its ambiguous finding that greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, endanger public health and welfare.

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THE DISINTEGRATION OF U.S. INFRASTRUCTURE: Quarter Million Water Main Breaks A Year

Re-Blogged From SRSrocco Report

The United States is sitting on top of a massive amount of aging infrastructure that continues to disintegrate at an alarming rate.  According to the American Society of Civil Engineers, the U.S. suffers from 240,000 water main breaks a year.  That’s roughly 700 water main breaks each day.

Some of these water main breaks can be quite large.  Here is a picture of water main break that took place on Howard Street in Baltimore.

large-water-main-break

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Germans Warned To “Stockpile Cash In Case Of ‘War”

By Mark O’Byrne – Re-Blogged From http://www.Gold-Eagle.com

The German government is warning its people to ‘stockpile’ food, water and cash in case of ‘war’.

For the first time since the end of the Cold War, the German government is set to tell citizens to stockpile food, water, medicine, fuel and cash in case of war, an attack, catastrophe or “national emergency”, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung newspaper reported on Sunday.

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Increased Carbon Dioxide is Greening Deserts Globally

By Anthony Watts – Re-Blogged From http://www.WattsUpWithThat.com

Enhanced levels of carbon dioxide are likely cause of global dryland greening, study says

From the “inconvenient truth” department and INDIANA UNIVERSITY:

Enhanced levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide are a likely key driver of global dryland greening, according to a paper published today in the journal Scientific Reports.

The positive trend in vegetation greenness has been observed through satellite images, but the reasons for it had been unclear.

greening-earth

After analyzing 45 studies from eight countries, Lixin Wang, assistant professor of earth sciences in the School of Science at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, and a Ph.D. student in Wang’s group, Xuefei Lu, concluded the greening likely stems from the impact of rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide on plant water savings and consequent increases in available soil water.

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China’s Security Of Supply

By Rick Mills – Re-Blogged From http://www.Silver-Phoenix500.com

Consider:

  • There is a slowing of production and dwindling of reserves at many of the world’s largest mines.
  • All the oz’s or pounds are never recovered from a mine – they simply becomes too expensive to recover.
  • The pace of new elephant-sized discoveries has decreased in the mining industry.
  • Discoveries are smaller and in less accessible regions.
  • Mineralogy & metallurgy is more complicated making extraction of metals from the mined ore increasingly more complex and expensive.
  • Mining is cyclical which makes mining companies reluctant to spend on exploration and development.
  • A looming skills shortage
  • There is no substitute for many metals except other metals – plastic piping is one exception.
  • Metal markets are small so speculation is a larger factor.
  • There hasn’t been a new technology shift in mining for decades – heap leach and open pit mining come to mind but they are both decades old innovation.
  • Country risk – resource extraction companies, because the number of discoveries was falling and existing deposits were being quickly depleted, have had to diversify away from the traditional geo-politically safe producing countries. The move out of these “safe haven” countries has exposed investors to a lot of additional risk.
  • Lack of recognition for population growth, growing middle class w/disposable incomes and urbanization as on-going demand growth factors.
  • Climate change.

Increasingly we will see falling average grades being mined, mines becoming deeper, more remote and come with increased political risk.

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