EPA’S Adoption of LNT for Cancer Risk Assessment

By Edward J. Calabresea, & Robert J. Golden – Re-Blogged From Junk Science

1. IntroductionThe US Congress passed, and President Richard Nixon signed intolaw the Safe Drinking Water Act in 1974. A significant provision of theAct involved engaging the US NAS to advise the EPA on multiple sci-entific and technical areas such as chemical and radiation risk assess-ment, including cancer risk assessment. To achieve these goals the NAScreated the Safe Drinking Water Committee (SDWC) in 1975. In 1977the SDWC published the 700 pageDrinking Water and Health[1] reportoffering EPA widespread guidance, including cancer risk assessmentand its underlying scientific foundations that supported the LNT.Within two years EPA would issue the first national drinking waterstandard for a chemical carcinogen using the LNT for total trihalo-methanes (THM) [2]. This action would jump start an avalanche ofother LNT based cancer risk assessments by EPA, not just for drinkingwater but for other environmental media as well.

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Neutrons Over the USA

Re-Blogged From Space Weather

[Experiments at CERN are showing that Cosmic Rays are responsible for much rain droplet formation. Quieter Sun means less Solar Wind, which allows in more Cosmic Rays, which means more Clouds & Rain. Interesting stuff. -Bob]

Want to experience space weather? Just step onboard an airplane. At typical cruising altitudes, cosmic rays from deep space penetrate the hulls of commercial jetliners, dosing passengers with levels of radiation comparable to dental X-rays. To measure this radiation, Spaceweather.com has been flying cosmic ray sensors onboard airplanes over 5 continents. Our latest results show something interesting about the continental USA.


Above: Neutrons detected during a flight from Portland to DC on April 9,2019.

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Neutrons Detected on Commercial Airplane Flights

March 13, 2019: Long lines. Narrow seats. Baggage fees. You recognize this list. It’s the downside of flying on modern commercial airlines. And now we have a new item to add: cosmic ray neutrons.

Spaceweather.com and Earth to Sky Calculus have just completed a 5-continent survey of neutron radiation at aviation altitudes. From December 2018 through February 2019, Hervey Allen of the University of Oregon’s Network Startup Resource Center carried  Earth to Sky radiation sensorsincluding neutron bubble chambers–onboard commercial flights from North America to Europe, Africa, South America and Asia.

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Radiation from Space is Increasing

By Anthony Watts – Re-Blogged From http://www.WattsUpWithThat.com

High altitude instrumentation balloon measurements show an increase in cosmic rays since 2015

Since the spring of 2015, NASA’s Spaceweather.com and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus have been flying balloons to the stratosphere over California to measure cosmic rays. Soon after our monitoring program began, we quickly realized that radiation levels are increasing. Why? The main reason is the solar cycle. In recent years, sunspot counts have plummeted as the sun’s magnetic field weakens.

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